Environment and Natural Resource Governance – Focus on Kwale
Kwale County is located in South coast of Kenya. it borders the Republic of Tanzania to the South West, Taita Taveta County to the West, Kilifi to the North, Mombasa to the North East. The county is administratively divided into six sub-counties and 20 wards. According to the KPHC, 2009 results, the county population was 688,398 ( 49% males and 51% females).
Kwale has a wide variety of natural resources ranging from mangrove forests, marine products and mining, through to diverse land resources including agriculture, lime production, and food crop farming. There is evidence of increasing land pressure due to large swathes of land being taken over by large-scale farming, large scale mining and open cast sand mining. The county is divided into agro-ecological zones in terms of agricultural potential. Medium potential and marginal lands constitutes 15% and 18% of the total land area respectively. The rest 67% is range, arid and semi-arid land suitable only for livestock and limited cultivation of drought resistant crops. Annual precipitation is less than 800mm on the average and is extremely unreliable. Kwale County has identified the following environmental challenges in its County Integrated Development Plan (CIDP) 2018-2022:
- solid waste management;
- pollution of the ocean and other water sources;
- radioactive emission from mineral mining;
- climate and climate change;
- over grazing; and
- bush fires.